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SAIIA Policy Insights No 41, March 2017

Published in Policy Insights
For well over a decade, a unique, but flawed global governance initiative, the Kimberley Process, has sought to assure customers that the high prices that they pay for diamonds - stones sold as symbols of love – are not associated with war and bloodshed. But more recently, the increasing production of synthetic diamonds in response to demand in emerging countries is threatening the stability of the entire diamond market.
Published in Opinion & Analysis
For a decade now the world has been engaged in what has been seen as a battle against blood diamonds perceived as funding wars in countries like Sierra Leone and DRC. The Kimberley process is one unique but flawed example of an attempt at global governance co-operation by producers and consumers to stamp out blood diamonds.
Published in Opinion & Analysis
Billed as the world’s largest mining investment event, the annual Investing in African Mining Indaba takes place from 3 to 6 February 2014 in Cape Town, South Africa. Now in its 20th year, the event is expected to draw almost 8,000 participants, including representatives of more than 1,500 companies and 45 African and non-African government delegations. 
Published in News & Announcements
Contrary to the urgent calls for the reform of the Kimberley Process (KP), its year-end plenary took place in Johannesburg from 19 to 22 November 2013 without a breakthrough on the pressing reform questions. The outgoing chair, South Africa, will now handover to China in early 2014, with Angola in line to take the helm in 2015. Neither successor is likely to push hard on the reform front, underlying the extent to which South Africa’s own tenure had been a missed opportunity.
Published in Opinion & Analysis
By prioritising consensus among its state parties and industry stakeholders in defiance of calls by civil society organisations (CSOs) for governance-enhancing reform, the Kimberley Process Diamond Certification Scheme (KPCS or KP) risks sleep-walking into irrelevance.
Published in Opinion & Analysis
SAIIA Policy Briefing No 43, February 2012
Published in Policy Briefings

On behalf of the South African Institute of International Affairs (SAIIA), the Centre for Research and Development, and the Heinrich Böll Stiftung (HBS), we would like to invite you for a roundtable seminar on the topic:

‘Zimbabwe’s Diamonds and the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme: Effectiveness and Responsibilities’

Instead of funding the country’s reconstruction after years of economic collapse, the discovery of alluvial diamonds in Marange, eastern Zimbabwe, in 2006 has plunged the area into chaos and brought with it armed security forces, violence, increased social instability and environmental degradation.
Venue: Jan Smuts House

Published in Events

The decision to give Zimbabwe no more than a slap on the wrist for the human rights abuses which its army has committed on the Marange alluvial diamond fields in the south-east of the country seriously threatens the future of the diamond industry's initiative to avert consumer boycotts of its gemstones.

Published in Opinion & Analysis

Resources at the Jan Smuts House Library
Jan Smuts House GARP Bibliography

Country Studies

Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
Amnesty International: DRC Report January 2007
Global Witness: Same Old Story A background study on natural resources in the Democratic Republic of Congo June 2004


DfID: Tanzania Factsheet

China and Africa’s Resources
Centre for Chinese Studies: China’s Africa Policy January 2006
Centre for Chinese Studies: China’s Interests in Africa’s Infrastructure Sector
CNOOC: Social Responsibility Report 2005
Tralac: A possible SACU/China Free Trade Agreement (FTA): Implications for the South African Manufacturing sector
Ambassador Liu Guijin: 'China's Role in Meeting Africa's Developmental Needs'
Dr He Wenping: 'Engaging with NEPAD: A View from China'
Dr He Wenping: 'The Balancing Act of China’s Africa Policy'
Dr Chris Alden: 'Africa and China: the next phase'
Erica S. Downs: 'The Fact and Fiction of Sino-African Energy Relations


Mining & Minerals

DDI: Accra Conference, October 27 – 30, 2005
DDI: A Different Kind of Diamond Mining
DDI: Background Paper on Macroeconomic Issues August 2005
DDI: Background Paper on Micro Development Issues August 2005
DDI: DEALING FOR DEVELOPMENT? A Study of Diamond Marketing and Pricing in Sierra Leone
EITI: Action Plan
EITI: Guide
EITI: Statement
Global Witness & Amnesty International: Déjà Vu - diamond industry still failing to deliver on promises
Global Witness: Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Kimberley Process
Kimberley Process Working Group on Monitoring Submission for the 2006 review of the KPCS
Background to the Kimberley Process
Final Communique, Kimberley Process Plenary November 6-9, 2006
WDC: The Essential Guide to Implementing the Kimberley Process
PAC: Diamond Industry Annual Review - Sierra Leone 2006
PAC: Killing Kimberley? Conflict Diamonds and Paper Tigers
SADC Mining Industry Review 2006
US GAO: Conflict Diamonds - Agency Actions Needed to Enhance Implementation of the Clean Diamond Trade Act
Dr Paul Jourdan: 'The Role of Extractive Industries in Fragile States in Africa'

Oil, Petroleum & Gas

African Downstream: trends confirmed, as Majors review investments, local operators increase their role
Chad’s Oil: Miracle or Mirage? Following the Money in Africa’s Newest Petro-State
Financing African Oil & Gas Investments: Presentation to the Africa Oil & Gas Forum
NORAD: The Norwegian Oil for Development Initiative
ASRP: Oil, Arms and Violence in Africa
PFC Energy: IOCsand Sustainability
IMF: Political Economy of Oil-Revenue Sharing in a Developing Country: Illustrations from Nigeria

Timber & Logging
USAID: Conflict Timber: Dimensions of the Problem in Asia and Africa
Global Witness: Timber, Taylor, Soldier, Spy: How Liberia’s uncontrolled resource exploitation, Charles Taylor’s manipulation and the re-recruitment of excombatants are threatening regional peace
Amazon Institute for Environmental Research: Tropical Deforestation and Climate Change


WWF: Ecological Risk Assessment: A Tool for Implementing an Ecosystem Approach for Southern African Fisheries
EU: Community action plan for the eradication of illegal,unreported and unregulated fishing
FAO: The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2006
EarthTrends: Information Guide for Fisheries
World FishCenter: Fisheries and the Millennium Development Goals : Solutions for Africa
MRAG: Review of Impacts of Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing on Developing Countries
NEPAD: The NEPAD Action Plan for the Development of African Fisheries and Aquaculture
OECD: Making Sure Fish Piracy Doesn’t Pay



Climate change
Christian Aid: The climate of poverty: facts, fears and hope
IPCC: Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change
Friends of the Earth: Climate Change, Crisis and Southern Africa
Stern Review: The Economics of Climate Change
Nicholas Stern: 'What is the Economics of Climate Change?'
UNFCCC: Caring for Climate - A guide to the Climate Change Convention and the Kyoto Protocol
UNFCCC: Understanding Climate Change: A Beginner's Guide to the UN Framework Convention and the Kyoto Protocol
Working Group on Climate Change and Development: Africa – Up in smoke 2

Water stress
Evan Leonard: 'Uncharted Waters: Climate Change and Water Scarcity in Africa'

Energy security
“Intelligent” Property Practice through Energy Efficiency and Beyond
WBCSD: Facts and trends to 2050: Energy and climate change
BP: BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2007

Conflict and Africa’s Resources

Thematic Research

SAIIA Business in Africa Research Project
‘An Oil Giant Reforms’ The Experience of South African Companies Doing Business in Nigeria by Dianna Game
Published in News & Announcements
Monday, 21 April 2008

Are blood diamonds forever?

SECRETIVE, collusive and brutal, or progressive, developmental and transparent? These are the two faces the diamond industry is attempting to come to grips with. Historically, the former reputation is well-earned and well-deserved. Today, the picture is markedly different.

Published in Opinion & Analysis

HOLLYWOOD is no longer a diamond’s best friend. Nominated for a number of industry awards, the blockbuster film Blood Diamond represents the greatest public relations challenge to the diamond industry since the exposure of the role diamonds played in fuelling civil wars and conflict in southern, west and central Africa in the 1990s. Indeed, the film itself is set in Sierra Leone in the 1990s and would have been of far greater social and political impact had it been made then.